success story: polypropylene in the textile industry.
Polypropylene is widely used as a fiber. Molding materials. Since entering the textile industry in 1950, the number of successful products and markets of polypropylene fiber has been increasing. In polypropylene used in the United StatesS. , More than 1 goesinto fiber and fiber per 3- Related products. The decline in the price of polypropylene resin and the continuous improvement of the quality, coupled with the low specific gravity of the polymer ( Provide high coverage) Has become an important factor in the development and use of new products. Olefin raw materials are readily available all over the world; A large number of merchant suppliers provide extrusion-grade resins. In addition, the continuous improvement of catalyst efficiency leads to the improvement of plant productivity and the improvement of resin properties. One of the great advantages of polypropylene\'s multi-functional polypropylene is [ Omitted table data It can be used in various fiber forms. The list of successful products and markets for polypropylene fiber materials is very extensive. It includes ropes and ropes, primary and secondary support, carpet veil, upholstery fabric, geotextile, filter material, gardening/agricultural material, automotive fabric, spills Cleaning materials, disposable diapers, hospital/medical care materials and protective clothing. Polypropylene is also a tolerant polymer during extrusion. Unlike many other thermoplastic polymers, it does not need to be pre-dried for most products or covered with inert gas during processing. Due to the non-coloring of unmodified polypropylene, pigmentation has become the preferred way to color textiles and textiles Related applications. The firm properties of colored fibers are generally comparable to those of dyed fibers. Colored polypropylene fibers have been established in contract carpet, indoor/outdoor carpet, synthetic lawn and other applications, in part because of their excellent firm properties. The light stabilizer helps to open up new markets for products used outdoors, the improved heat stabilizer improves extrusion efficiency and allows the use of more recycled materials. The fiber forms of polypropylene include staple fiber, monofilament, filament, slit film yarn, slit- Fiber film yarn, spun-stick, melt-sprayed non-woven fabric, synthetic pulp and Velcro mesh. The table shows the versatility of polypropylene as a fiberForm material. From the historical point of view before World War II, the rope is made of natural fibers such as assisal, henequen and abaca (manila) There are Hemp and marijuana. During the war, nylon ropes began to be used for traction and other military purposes, and later, with the emergence of more man-made fibers, many cableway industries began to manufacture products with artificial fibers. When polypropylene resin is on the market, the rope manufacturer is the first manufacturer of extruded yarn in the textile industry. The relatively simple extrusion process of olefin and the lower production cost enable the industry to convert into twofor- A rotating device in which the flying arm on the rope rotates two turns each time the yarn is rotatedmaking machine. The rope is formed in the form of a coil ready for shipment. Polypropylene products for fiber are introduced to the United States. S. Textile industry in late 1950 and early 1960. Due to its lack of thermal and sunlight stability and the difficulty of polymer coloring, the initial acceptance of polypropylene in the textile industry is limited. As the growth potential of polymer resin becomes more visible for heat, light stability and pigment suppliers, improved heat, light stabilizer and pigments have been developed for polypropylene and polyethylene. At the beginning of 1960, when the tufted carpet industry began to grow in 1950 sand, the development of synthetic carpet backingS. The carpet industry relies on woven jute or cotton as the main backing for yarn tufting. Due to its lower cost and better performance, the jute quickly replaced the recotton fabric for primary and secondary backing, and the carpetindustry relies almost entirely on the jute fabric imported from India and Pakistan. However, domestic chaos, speculation and the strike of dock workers have led to a cyclical shortage of jute backing fabrics and sharp fluctuations in prices. Instability in the market for jute fabrics has led to the development of alternative materials. In 1971, the Bangladesh War interrupted the transport of the jute fabric, and in 1978, the strike of Indian jute mills and dock workers brought the price of the jute fabric up. These events have given impetus to a huge effort by the automotive industry to replace the jute fabric. Chembac of Chemstrand is a woven nylon scrim packaged by polyurethane foam, called Chembac fabric, and is an early attempt by Chemstrand Co. (Now Solutia, Inc. ) A major backing for development. However, the high cost of the material, the thick fabric structure, wasted the front yarn and hindered its commercial success. Loktuft of Phillips fiber in early 1960, Phillips fiber( Now Amoco Fabricsand Fiber Co. , Ltd. ) Purchased technology and Loktuft trademarks and patents for backing of main carpet from Bigelow Samford carpet company Loktuft is based on needle Weaving technology using polypropylene staple fiber and woven polypropylene scrim made of staple yarn. Scrim adds dimensional stability to the fabric. Loktuft has achieved limited success as a backing for the main carpet. During the period when there was a shortage of jute backing fabrics, it sold well, but when the jute became readily available, sales fell. One limitation of Loktuft is that it is thicker than the jute and wasted veil. Loktuft has gained greater recognition than the broadloom carpet. James Leith & Son carpet Polypropylene woven bag RibbonYarn base cloth James Leith & Son carpet Co. , Ltd. ( Now part of BurlingtonIndustries) At the beginning of 1960, ribbon fabric made of slit polypropylene film began to be developed. Polypropylene is the preferred polymer for this fabric because it is easy to convert in yarn, good properties inherent to the fabric, and economic considerations for relatively low costs and potential stable prices. Woven yarn (tape) The surface of the fabric is flat, the structure is uniform, the efficiency of tufting is improved, and the appearance of the carpet is more uniform. Other advantages of the backing of the artificial carpet include mildew resistance and microorganisms, as well as no shedding, which reduces the dirt of the carpet and improves the cleanliness. James Lees & Sons Carpet The company was acquired by BurlingtonIndustries to produce woven polypropylene backing in a short period of time. In the early 1970 s, the taste of the Decorators turned to a more open \"shag\" carpet, requiring the development of a new concept of polypropylene backing fabric. Patents issued to OziteCorp. A woven polypropylene substrate is described, in which there is a light-weight dyeable Network (nylon) Got stuck in a needle. The dyed mesh greatly improves the appearance of the shag carpet as the undyed backing fabric is no longer displayed. Amoco fabric is the first fabric to produce this special carpet backing commercially. DuPont\'s Typar textile-bonded polypropylene carpet backing company launched an ambitious effort in 1962 to commercialize the textile fabric. The construction of the Typar textile stick polypropylene plant, used to make carpet backing, located in old pecans, Tennessee. Announced. DuPont enters the textile non-woven fabric business ( It also includes Reemay spun adhesive polyester and Tyvek spun adhesive high- Density polyethylene) It has been greatly affected by the potential of replacing jute with Typar as the main carpet backing fabric. Polypropylene was selected as the raw material for Typar as it became more and more available as a commodity type resin with many major suppliers. However, the development and commercialisation of textile adhesive fabrics by DuPont did not go smoothly. Scale- It turns out that raising Typarprocess to width is more difficult than expected. In order to improve the tear strength of Typar, product modification is necessary. In order to improve the performance of itstuftting, special finishes are also required to be applied. Typar did not succeed in replacing most of the wovenfabrics used for carpet backing, so it was disappointing for DuPont. Amoco fabric continuously improves its woven polypropylene fiber yarn fabric, which performs better than juteand Typar for most types of carpets. Instead of being a generic carpet backing, Typar becomes a niche product for print and specialty carpets, with a high degree of dimensional stability being an advantage. DuPont later introduced the United StatesS. Typar operation for remay, Inc. However, Typar\'s right to Typar trademark has been maintained in Luxembourg and Europe. In Europe, Typar is more successful as the backing of acarpet than in the United States. S. Because of the different European styles. Preference tends to more fine specification tufting and other professional products. Some producers dominate the US market. S. Carpet backing business by Amoco fabric & Fiber( Now part of BP Amoco) And synthetic Industry Corporation It is currently the two major manufacturers of woven polypropylene carpet backing in the United States. S. Linq Industrial Fabrics( Exxon Chemical originally owned. ) Carpet backing fabric is also produced, but its main business is geotextile and woven packaging fabric. Amoco and the synthetic industry are the only large enterprises that produce back-lined secondary carpets. It is made of polypropylene with yarnwarp and spun polypropylene staple fiber filling. In the United States, the back lining of the primary and secondary carpets of jute has almost disappeared. S. Carpet business DuPont\'s spinning work has led to the era of non-woven innovation. DuPont has developed a wide range of spinning polypropylene, Reemay spinning polyester and Tyvek high in 1960 s- Density Polyethylene uses the non-woven fabric business as the main source of innovative industrial materials. In addition to DuPont, many companies around the world are now major manufacturers of textile and other non-woven products. These companies include Freudenberg, a polymer group company. British BBA Group, 3 M, Japan. Now, the emergence of turn-key spinners production lines has enabled many small companies around the world to produce spinners. The companies that provide turnkey textile equipment include Ason Engineering, KarlFischer, Kobelco, and Reifenhauser. In addition to polypropylene spun adhesive fabric, polyester and polyamine fabrics are also available. However, in the world, polypropylene is still the main polymer for the production of spun-bonded and fused-sprayed non-woven fabrics. Textile adhesive polyester carpet backing is widely used in automotive carpets because they have a better profile than polypropylene. A limited number of polyester and polyamide resins are used in fusion non-woven fabrics specifically for filtration applications. Increased supply of textile products. The sturdy, lightweight fabric has a wide width and weight and is more economical than the lightweight woven or knitted fabric of many competitors. For manufacturers, they have a shorter process cycle time than knitting or knitting, and can be embossed, pressed or molded. They have chemical resistance, and their mechanical properties, such as permeability and thickness, can be changed. The fabric can be used as a base material for coating, lamination and combination. There are now pre-packaged components and technical assistance to establish the spinning operation. The development of melt-sprayed non-woven fabrics inorganic melt-sprayed fibers as early as 1840, a form of melt-sprayed is used in the manufacture of mineral or slag wool ( A mixture of thick and very fine fibers and \"shooting). The molten slag from the steel industry is extruded through the bushing and used high- Pressure steam injection produces mineral wool for boiler and steam pipe insulation. Owens- Corning has developed a flame attenuation process for manufacturing micro-Dan fiberglass in the middle1940s. The melted glass is squeezed through the bushing and then stretched into a fiber of about 1mm diameter. The extracted fibers are arranged in a precise, evenly arranged array into a jet flame explosion from an external combustion burner. The fiber- The thinning process occurs immediately by spraying the flame at a speed of 750 feet per second, making the fiber fine to 0. 05 micron. American Viscose Company early work in the 1930 s and 1940 s using organic microfibers The spray spinning technology for the production of micro-Dan fiber was studied. Acrylic and acrylic/vinyl chloride were used in solvent solutions. A small pilot project was built by American viscose fiber, but the work did not generate any significant business. Dow Chemical used polystyrene dissolved in cumene at the end of 1940 to create a laboratory number of micro-Dan polybenzene fibers. The polymer solution is poured between two parallel cylinders that rotate very close in the opposite direction. Polystyrene pulls away from the surface to form fibers with a diameter of less than 1 micron. Dow has obtained a patent for the manufacture of battery separators using micro polystyrene. Micro-Dan works in the US Naval Research Laboratory 1950S. To monitor the global nuclear weapons test, the government has attempted to develop micro-filters to collect radioactive particles in the upper atmosphere. In order to meet this demand, the Naval Research Laboratory conducted a landmark study of the organic polymer melt-spraying microdan fiber. A ram Extruder was developed to squeeze the molten polymer directly out of two high-speed heated airflow through a row of fine holes. When the cooler air solidified the polymer, the fibers formed in the air flow. Typical cases include a temperature of 600 [degrees] F and pressure 50 psi. Temperature up to 850 [degrees] Using F, the fibers are made fine to 0. 3 micron. The polymers studied include polyethylene, polystyrene, nylon 66, nylon 6, Nylon 610, mma and trifluoride. At the time of this study, polypropylene has not yet been developed. Fusion spray process of Exxon in Esso Research and Engineering (1965) Now Exxon Research)inBaytown, Tex. Unconventional processes for the production of polypropylene fibers are being studied. One of the processes studied is the fusion process. The elements of the process are used as the starting point for Esso work. One drawback of this process is the formation of \"shooting\" with fine fibers \". The improvement of the process and the development of improved molds help to minimize the \"shooting\" process. Exxon has studied a wide range of product applications for melt-sprayed non-woven fabrics, including cigarette filters and high-voltage cable insulation. For most of the early uses of the polypropylene melt spray mesh, such as filtration and battery separator, was postponed for commercial use by the permit holder of the Exxon process. Kimberly- Clark was the most successful in commercializing the spinning method and the fusion spray process. Kimberly\'s researcher Clarkrecognized recognizes the potential of the fusion spray technology in conjunction with the spinning stick technology and is primarily responsible for the company\'s licensing of the Exxon fusion spray process. This led to the development of SMS ( Spinning/melt/spinning) Products for surgical packaging and protective clothing. The success of melt-sprayed non-woven polypropylene resin is tailor-made for melt-sprayed products. In addition, a variety of polymers, including elastic materials, can be blown and various fiber sizes, including micro-disclaimers, can be produced. Because they do not contain fiber finishes, wet processing is not required. Products such as surgical and industrial masks and filter cartridges can be found in- Lines and SMScomposites are widely used for packaging and protection of surgical procedures. Fusion-sprayed non-woven fabric has been successfully combined with the spun adhesiveline and off-line systems. Polypropylene BCF yarn in carpet and carpet Continuous filament of swelling) Yarn now accounts for nearly 1 billion lbs/year of face fibers used in American carpets and rugS. Most BCF yarn used in USAS. The carpet industry is produced by a carpet factory. Integrated into fiber production. In 1998, the relatively low price of polypropylene resin was a major factor in the increase in income in major US economiesS. Carpet and Rug producers. Improvements in additives and processing technology help explain why the United StatesS. Carpet Factory has been highly successful in the manufacture of BCF polypropylene carpet yarn. Through cooperation between processors and suppliers of additives and concentrated pigments, improvements in the resin itself, as well as pigments and thermal light stabilizer, have been strengthened. Additional benefits from high availability Carpet and fiber production experienced personnel speed, multi-color weaving equipment. Compact rotating device to improve the speed and performance of the air Tangled and air Jet texture equipment, enhanced pattern capabilities of tufting machines and the increasing use of CAD systems all contribute to better products. Summary although the current overcapacity of polypropylene resin has brought serious price pressure to resin manufacturers, new textiles and textiles Continue to develop related applications. For the purchaser of polypropylene, the most favorable price and its easy-to-process properties stimulate its application in consumer and industrial products. The possibility of expansion of spinners and melt-sprayed polypropylene products will be a major contributor to many new applications. However, polypropylene is not considered a formal challenge to polyester, cotton or nylon in a large part of the garment fabric business. The low melting point of polypropylene and the lack of actual coloring are a serious limitation. Its role in clothing will continue as professional material for sportswear and related purposes. Use of metallocene catalyst To date, polypropylene in textile products has been almost unsuccessful. Some limited uses in geotextile products have been reported in Europe, some metal catalysts Polypropylene is used in fusion products. It is expected that by using metallocum and other new catalysts, resin for specific extrusion systems and applications will become possible. With greater production of fine Dan and fine Dan textile sticky fabrics, it is expected that the production and use of two-component fibers will increase. In addition, as more and more engineers become familiar with their use, the application of geotextile for weaving and non-woven polypropylene fibers will continue to grow and accelerate. For mesh, film, foam, foil and paper, the use of non-woven fabric will expand. In the long run, the development of circulating olefin may lead to their use in high temperature and high modulus fiber structures.